Buddhism and Jainism

Buddhism

Buddhism was started by Gautama Buddha, also known as Sakyamuni and Tathagata Gautama Buddha was born in 563 BC. C. in Lumbini, near the Kapilvastu district of Nepal, on the day of the Poornima (full moon day). His childhood name was Siddhartha. His father’s name was King Suddhodhana, who was the ruler of the Saka dynasty and the mother’s name was Mahamaya, who was the princess of the Kosala dynasty, 7 days after Gautama’s birth, Buddha died and was raised by his stepmother Mahaprajapati Gautami, who gave him the title of Gautam. In his childhood, Gautama Buddha used to play with his horse named Kanthak. Buddhism and Jainism

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At the age of 16, Gautama Buddha married the extremely beautiful Yasodhara and had a son named Rahula. After seeing the pain of the world, Gautama Buddha decided to leave the life pleasures. and start living the vagabond life At the age of 29 he left home in search of salvation or Nirvana and came to Vaishali where he became a disciple of Alara Klama but was not convinced by Alara Kalama’s teachings and moved away from there and became the disciple of Udraka Ramputra. He wondered for 6 years and one day in Bodh Gaya under the Peepal tree (bodhi tree)

he reached Nirvana or Enlightenment in the Tapasso and Metallic became Gautama Buddha’s first disciple, while Ananda was Gautama Buddha’s favourite disciple. Gautama Buddha delivered his first sermon in Sarnath on the subject “Dharmachakrapravartan” or Turning of the wheel of the law. In his last days of life, he came to Vaishali where his disciple named Kunda fed him pork meat so he died at the age-aged 80 in 483 BC in the Kushinagar Deoria district of the Malla republic. His death is known as Mahaparinirvana.

Teachings of Gautama Buddha Gautama

Buddha gave four great truths of life

1. The world is full of pains and misery

2. The desire of the human being is the main cause of his pains

 3. If there are no desires there are no pains

 4. The Los wishes can be conquered. Eight ways.

 Eight paths of Buddhism.

Buddhist literature

 Buddhist literature was written in the Pali language.

Vinay Pitaka.

These are the laws of Buddhist monasteries. It was recited by Uppali at the first Buddhist council in 483 BC.

Sutta Pitaka

It is the collection of Buddha’s sermons and it is divided into 5 parts Abhidhamma Pitaka

 It is about the life and philosophy of the teachings of Buddha

Milindapanho

 It is about the conversation with the Greek king Menander and the Buddhist monk

Nagasena Tripitaka

It is the sacred book of Buddhism Buddhist councils First council

The first council was held in 483 BC. In the Saptaparni caves near Rajgriha in Bihar under the presidency of King Ajatshatru

First Council

At the first Buddhist Council, the Vinaya Pitaka was recited by Upali while the Sutta Pitaka was recited by the

Second Council

The second council was held in 383 BC at Vaishali under the presidency of King Kalashoka

Third Council

The third council it was carried out in the year 250 a. In Patliputra under the presidency of King Ashoka the Great

 Fourth Council

 The fourth council was celebrated in the year 78 d. In Kundalvan in Kashmir under the presidency of King Kanishka. In the Fourth Council, Buddhism was divided into 2 parts, Hinayana and Mahayana.

Symbols associated with the birth of Gautama Buddha-

 Lotus or Bull Great Renunciation- First Sermon of the Horse- Nirvana of the Wheel- Bodhi Tree / Mahaparinirvana Peepal Tree / Death- Stupa

Jainism

 Jainism was started by Rishabhdeva but was propagated by Vardhaman Mahavir Vardhaman Mahavir was born in 540 BC in the Kundagrama Vaishali district in Bihar His father’s name was King Siddhartha, who was the ruler of the Janatrik clan and his mother’s name was Trishla, who was Lichavi’s sister. Prince Chetak of Vaishali Vardhaman Mahavir was married to Yasoda and had a daughter named Priyadarshani Vardhaman Mahavir reached Kiavalya under the Sal tree in Jimbhigrama village on the banks of the Rajupalika River in Bihar After reaching Kaivalya,

his son-in-law named Jamali became the first disciple of Vardhaman Mahavir. After obtaining the Kaivalya, he was called Jaina or Jitendriya and his followers were known as Jains. He was given the title of Arihant, that is, the worthy Vardhaman Mahavir died at the age of 72 in 468 BC. C. at Pavapuri near Patna in Bihar. total 24 Tirthankaras (teachers) in Jainism.

  •              NAME                              EMBLEM
  • 1) Rishabha (Adinath)                   Bull
  • 2) Ajitnath                                    Elephant
  • 3) Sambhav Nath                           Horse
  •  4) Abhinandan-Nath Monkey
  • 5) Sumatinath Curlew
  • 6) Padmaprabha Red Lotus
  • 7) Suparshvanath Svastika
  • 8) Chandra-Prabha Crescent
  • 9) Pushpadanta(Suvidhinath)   Dolphin
  • 10) Shitalnath Wishing Tree
  • 11) Shreyamsanath Garuda
  •  12) Vasupujya Buffalo
  • 13) Vimalnath Boar
  • 14) Anantanath Bear
  • 15) Dharmanath Vajardanda
  • 16) Shantinath Deer
  • 17) Kunthunath Goat
  • 18) Aranath Fish
  • 19) Malinath Waterpot
  • 20) Munisuvrata Tortoise
  • 21) Namath Blue Lotus
  • 22) Neminath Conch
  • 23) Parshvanath Serpent
  • 24) Mahavira Lion

Jain Councils

There were only two Jain Councils The First Jain Council was held in 300 B.C and was held at Patliputra under the leadership of Sthulbhadra. It results in the compilation of 12 Angas and replaced the 14 Purves The Second Jain Council was held in 521 A.D Century B.C and was held at Vallabhi in Gujarat under the leadership of

Devaridhigani. It results in the final compilation of 12 Angas and 12 Upangas The Jain literature were written in the Ardh Magadhi and the Prakrit language Sects of Jains

 The strict religious practice of Jainism divided the Jainism into two sects Digambaras- Sky clad i.e. Naked

Svetambaras- White clad- They wear white clothes

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